Converting Units
Kilometre  Metres 
1  1000 
Metre  Centimetre 
1  100 
Centimetre  Millimetres 
1  10 
Metre  Millimetres 
1  1000 
Kilograms  Grams 
1  1000 
Grams  Centigrams 
1  100 
Centigram  Milligrams 
1  10 
Grams  Milligrams 
1  1000 
Kilolitre  Litres 
1  1000 
Litres  Centilitres 
1  100 
Centilitre  Millilitres 
1  10 
Litre  Millilitres 
1  1000 
Polygon
A polygon is a plane shape (twodimensional) with straight sides. Examples include triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons and hexagons. A regular polygon has:
 all sides equal and
 all angles equal
Quadrilaterals
A quadrilateral is a closed figure made up of four straight edges and four corners.
Types of Quadrilaterals:
The special types of quadrilaterals are listed below:
 Parallelogram  A twodimensional flat shaped closed figure made up of four sides where both pairs of opposite sides are parallel with same length is termed as parallelogram.
 Rectangle  A twodimensional flat shaped four sided closed figure made up of four sides and four right angles.
 Rhombus  A twodimensional flat shaped closed figure made up of four congruent sides.
 Square  A twodimensional flat shaped four sided closed figure made up of four equal sides and four right angles.
 Trapezoid  A twodimensional flat shaped four sided closed figure with at least one pair of parallel sides and each angle measures lesser than 180 °.
 Kite  A twodimensional flat shaped closed figure made up of four sides such that each pair of consecutive sides is congruent.
Area
Area is a measure of how much space there is on a flat surface.
Rectangle
A rectangle is a foursided shape whose corners are all ninety degree angles. In a rectangle, two of the sides are equal (length) and the two other sides are equal (width).
The area of a rectangle is its length multiply by its width
A = Length x Width
Example
Find the area of a rectangle with length of 8cm and width of 6 cm.
Area = 8 x 6 = 48cm^{2}
Square
A square is a flat shape defined by four points at the four corners. A square has four sides all of equal length, and four corners, all right angles (90 degree angles). All the sides of a square are equal.
The area of a square = side x side
Example
Find the area of a square with side of 7cm
Area = 7 x 7 = 49cm^{2}
Triangle
A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices. A polygon is a plane shape with straight sides.
The area of a triangle = ½ base times height,
Example
Find the area of a triangle with height of 10 cm and base of 6 cm.
Area = 1 /2 x 6 x 10 = 30cm^{2}
Parallelogram
A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides.
The area of a parallelogram, A = bh
where, b is the length of the base of the parallelogram and h is the perpendicular height of the parallelogram.
Example
Find the area of a parallelogram with base of 9cm and height of 5cm.
Area = bh
= 9 x 5 = 45cm^{2}
Trapezium
A trapezium is a quadrilateral with only one pair of parallel sides.
The area of a trapezium = 1/2 (a + b) h
where, a is the length of one parallel side of the trapezium and b is the length of the second parallel side of the trapezium.
Kite
The area of a kite is given by the following formula where x and y are the lengths of the kite's diagonals:
A = 1/ 2 xy
where
AC = x
BD = y
Example
Find the area of a kite where:
AC = 24cm
and
BD = 16 cm
Solution
1/ 2 . (24) . (16) = 384 / 2 = 192.
Rhombus
A rhombus is a foursided shape where all sides have equal length. Also opposite sides are parallel and opposite angles are equal. It is a quadrilateral all of whose sides have the same length. A rhombus is actually just a special type of parallelogram. Many of the area calculations can be applied to them also. Choose a formula based on the values you know to begin with.

The "base times height" method
First pick one side to be the base. Any one will do, they are all the same length. Then determine the altitude  the perpendicular distance from the chosen base to the opposite side. The area is the product of these two, or, as a formula:
Area = b x a
where
b is the length of the base
a is the altitude (height). 
The "diagonals" method
Another simple formula for the area of a rhombus when you know the lengths of the diagonals. The area is half the product of the diagonals. As a formula:
Area = 1/ 2 d_{1}d_{2}
where
d_{1} is the length of a diagonal
d_{2} is the length of the other diagonal.
Example
Find the area of a rhombus with d_{1 }being 8cm and d_{2 }being 9 cm.
Solution
Area = 1/ 2 d_{1}d_{2}
= (8 x 9)/2
= 72/2
= 36 cm^{2}
Circle
The area of a circle, A = πr^{2}
where, r is the radius of the circle
and, π is 3.142 or 22/ 7
Example
Find the area of a circle with radius of 14cm.
Area = 22/ 7 x 14 x 14 = 616cm^{2}
Perimeter
Perimeter deals with the total distance around an object such as square or rectangle.
Rectangle
The perimeter of a rectangle, P = L + w + L + w
= 2(L + w)
where, L is the length of the rectangle and w is the width of the rectangle.
Square
Perimeter = s + s + s + s
Triangle
The perimeter of a triangle, P = the sum of all the sides.
Perimeter = a + b + c
Circle
The perimeter of a circle is called its circumference. The circumference of a circle, C = 2πr or πd where, r is the radius of the circle and d is the diameter of the circle with π being 22/ 7 or 3.142.
Example
Find the perimeter of a square with radius of 7cm.
Solution
Perimeter, P = 2 x 22/ 7 x 7
= 44cm
Area of a Sector and Arc Length
The sector of a circle is the portion enclosed by two radii and an arc. The smaller area is called the minor sector and the larger area, the major sector.
The arc length of the minor sector (minor arc), is the portion of the circumference of the circle which spans the minor sector.
The area of the sector of a circle, A = πr^{2}Ѳ/360
The length of the arc, L = 2πr x Ѳ/360
Example
If radius is 7cm and Ѳ = 80, find:
(i) the area of the sector and,
(ii) the length of the arc.
Solution
(i)
Area = 22/7 x 7 x 7 x 80/360 = 34.2cm^{2}
(ii) L = 2 x 3.14 x 7 x 80/360 = 9.8cm